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Glossary

Active Measures -- A former Soviet term to explain the use of propaganda and other measures used to influence public opinion. Such activities have included disinformation and campaigns of "front" groups and support services as they relate to terrorist groups.

Anarchism -- The nineteenth century political philosophy that supported the viewpoint that all governments are corrupt and should be overthrown often by violent means. The leading advocate of this position was Mikhail Bakunin.

ANFO (ammonium nitrate-fuel oil) -- A powerful explosive made by mixing fertilizer and fuel oil. The type of bomb used in Oklahoma City and the first World Trade Center Attack as well as other terrorist attacks around the world.

Assassination -- Murder of political figures or other prominent individuals for political purposes.

Bioterrorism -- The use of biological weapons that are considered deadly pathogens in terrorist attacks such as anthrax, smallpox, polio, and other diseases.

Cell -- The smallest unit found within terrorist or guerrilla groups often consisting of five or less dedicated inviduals to the terrorist cause, using a concept of "leaderless resistance" making it difficult for penetration by counterterrorist organizations.

Chemical Weapons -- Weapons that encompass toxi agents such as nerve or blister agents such as Sarin or Mustard Gas.

Counterterrorism -- Attempts to prevent or to reduce the frequency of terrorist attacks. This may include wiretaps and preemptive strikes against terrorists or terrorist bases.

Cyberterrorism -- attacks on computer systems or networks by hackers working with or for terrorist groups. This may include inserting viruses, stealing sensitive data, or flooding the internet with bogus traffic in order to overwhelm a system.

Euroterrorism -- Associated with the left wing terrorism of the 1960s through the 1980s involving the Red Army Faction, Red Brigade, November 17th Group, and other terrorist groups that targeted NATO and American interests in Europe.

International Terrorism -- Terrorism involving citizens or governments of more than one country.

Intifada -- Arabic term which means "uprising," which took place in 1987 following the killing of serval Arabs in the Gaza Strip. A second intifada took place following Ariel Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount in 2000.

Kneecapping -- Punishment common in Northern Ireland by the IRA for those accused of being collaborators with the British. It involves either the shooting or breaking of the accused's kneecap.

Narcoterrorism -- A prevailing view of counterterrorist experts that an alliance exists between drug traffickers and political terrrorists. Narcoterrorists use the same trade craft used by terrorist organizations.

Nom de guerre -- French term meaning "name of war." Terrorist organizates use non de guerre

Occupied Terrorists -- Name given to those areas occupied by Israel following the 1967 War.

Safe House -- building where terrorists can rest or plan an upcoming attack. A building not under surveillance by foreign intelligence or counterintelligence organizations.

Skyjackings -- The hijacking of an air liner by terrorists. A common practice by terrorists groups in the 1960s.

Terrorism -- Premeditated and politically motivated violence perpetuated against civilian targets by subnationational organziations or clandestine agents designed to influence the public.

Terrorist Acts -- Are crimes that are in violation of criminal law and laws of war.

Terrorist Group -- Any group practicing or that has significant elements that are involved in international terrorism.

SOURCE: Harry Henderson, Global Terrorism: The Complete Reference Guide, 2001.